law Definition, Systems, Institutions, & Fields

In 1297, for instance, while the highest court in France had fifty-one judges, the English Court of Common Pleas had five. This powerful and tight-knit judiciary gave rise to a systematised process of developing common law. Socialist law is the legal systems in communist states such as the former Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. Academic opinion is divided on whether it is a separate system from civil law, given major deviations based on Marxist–Leninist ideology, such as subordinating the judiciary to the executive ruling party. English common law was largely customary law and unwritten, until discovered, applied, and reported by the courts of law.

  • Cynicism over “officialdom” is still common, and the workings of public servants is typically contrasted to private enterprise motivated by profit.
  • This is especially the case for pension funds, the most important form of trust, where investors are trustees for people’s savings until