From prehistoric times, Egyptians doubtless used the facility of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, progressively studying to regulate a lot of it by way of purposely constructed irrigation channels and “catch” basins. The historic Sumerians in Mesopotamia used a complex system of canals and levees to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for irrigation. Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and offered, for the primary time, the ability to smelt and forge gold, copper, silver, and lead – native metals present in relatively pure type in nature. The advantages of copper instruments over stone, bone and picket tools had been quickly obvious to early humans, and native copper was in all probability used from close to the beginning of Neolithic occasions .
Initially, technology was seen as an extension of the human organism that replicated or amplified bodily and mental faculties. Marx framed it as a software used by capitalists to oppress the proletariat, however believed that technology would be a fundamentally liberating drive as quickly as it was “free of societal deformations”. In physics, the invention of nuclear fission in the Atomic Age led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Computers had been invented and later shifted from analog to digital in the Digital Revolution. Information technology, significantly optical fiber and optical amplifiers led to the birth of the Internet, which ushered within the Information Age. The Space Age started with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, and later the launch of crewed missions to the moon within the Nineteen Sixties.
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Other fields of ethics have had to cope with technology-related issues, including military ethics, media ethics, and academic ethics. All of these have had a major impression on the surroundings of the earth. As technology has advanced, so has the adverse environmental influence, with the releasing of greenhouse gases, like methane and carbon dioxide, into the ambiance, inflicting the greenhouse effect, steadily heating the earth and causing world warming. With the growing reliance of technology, there have been safety and privacy issues together with it.
It has already been noticed that technology includes the application of cause to methods, and in the 20th century it came to be regarded as almost axiomatic that technology is a rational activity stemming from the traditions of modern science. The trendy philosophy of progress cannot be learn back into the historical past of technology; for most of its long existence technology has been virtually stagnant, mysterious, and even irrational. It is thus essential to beware of overfacile identification of technology with the “progressive” forces in contemporary civilization. This was adopted a century later by the Second Industrial Revolution which led to fast scientific discovery, standardization, and mass production. New technologies were developed, including sewage techniques, electricity, mild bulbs, electrical motors, railroads, cars, and airplanes. These technological advances led to significant developments in medication, chemistry, physics, and engineering.